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Home > Haisen Blog > The structure of CNC lathe

  • In today's machining field, CNC lathes have been widely used in various fields. The use of CNC lathes can avoid problems due to insufficient structural rigidity, poor seismic resistance, and large frictional resistance on the sliding surface. And it is very helpful to improve the turning efficiency and reduce the cost.

    There are many types of CNC lathes, but they are generally composed of three parts: the main body of the lathe, the numerical control device and the servo system.

    1. The main body of the lathe

    1. Spindle and headstock

    The rotation accuracy of the CNC lathe spindle has a great impact on the accuracy of the processed parts, and its power, rotation speed, etc. also have a certain impact on the processing efficiency. If the spindle box of a CNC lathe is a CNC lathe with a level of automatic speed regulation function, the transmission structure of the spindle box has been simplified. For the modified CNC lathe with dual functions of manual operation and automatic control processing, basically the original headstock is still being retained.

    2. Guide rail

    The guide rail of the CNC lathe provides a guarantee for the feed movement. To a large extent, it will have a certain impact on the rigidity, accuracy and smoothness of the lathe during low-speed feed, which is also one of the important factors affecting the quality of parts processing. Except that some CNC lathes use traditional sliding guide rails, the CNC lathes produced by stereotypes have adopted plastic guide rails.

    3. Mechanical transmission mechanism

    Except for the gear transmission mechanism in part of the headstock, the CNC lathe has made some simplifications on the basis of the original ordinary lathe transmission chain. The gear box, the feed box, the slide box and most of the transmission mechanisms have been eliminated, and only the spiral transmission mechanism for vertical and horizontal feeding is retained, and the drive motor to the lead screw is added (a few lathes have not added ) A gear pair that can eliminate its backlash.

    2. Numerical control device

    In the field of numerical control machine tools, the numerical control device is the core of the machine tool. It mainly receives the numerical control processing program sent from the input device from the internal memory. All parts of the machine tool work, allowing it to move in an orderly manner.

    Three, servo system

    There are two aspects in the servo system: one is the servo unit, and the other is the drive device.

    The servo unit is the link between the CNC and the lathe. It can amplify the weak signal in the CNC device to form the signal of the high-power drive device. According to the different commands received by the servo unit, there will be a difference between the pulse type and the analog type.

    Drive decoration is to program the mechanical movement of CNC signal expanded by the servo unit, and drive the lathe through simple connection and unloading connection parts, so that the worktable can accurately locate the relative movement of the track, and finally process the required products according to the requirements.
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